-      Jantar Mantar Jaipur (World Heritage Site)

Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (Jai Singh II), the legendry figure in construction is credited with setting-up of solar observatories at Jaipur &  in four other cities of India, was born in 1688 A.D. and succeeded  the throne of Amber at the age of eleven Years in 1699 A.D. During his reign the state was full of troubles, warfare and with political anarchy in Northern India.

        Sawai Jai Singh was inclined towards astronomy from an early age and studied as a scholar should, works of Hindu, Muslim and European astronomers, particularly those of Plotemy, Ulugh Beg and La Hire. He also translated well known treatise on the subject in to Sanskrit and Persian and sent his staff across the sea to collect information on astronomy. Jai Singh professedly followed the Uzbek astronomer Ulugh Beg and brought up to date the latter’s celebrated Catalogue of Stars. He was helped in his endeavors by Samrat Jagannath and Pt. Kewal Ram.  Sawai Jai Singh first built a large observatory with instruments of masonry in Delhi in 1724 A.D. after experimenting on the small instruments made in brass. In his view, such instruments could provide more exact and precise reading than smaller ones of brass. There after, he built observatories at Jaipur, Ujjain, Banaras (Varanasi) and Mathura.

        The Jaipur observatory was completed in 1734 A.D. It is the biggest one among the five. It contains almost all of the Raja’s instruments with a greater degree of precision. The “Rashivalaya Yantra” (Zodiac Circle or Ecliptic Instrument) is found no where else except at Jantar Mantar, Jaipur.  Sawai Jai Singh himself used to take astronomical readings in this   observatory situated near his palace, now popularly known as “The City Palace”.  The observatory was renovated in the time of Maharaja Madho Singh, in 1901 A.D. The renovation was carried out by Pt. Chandradhar Sharma Guleri, Pt. Gokul Chandra Bhavan and Lieutenant A.ff. Garrett. Stone and lime plastered marking plates were replaced with  marble.

        Sawai Jai Singh emerged as the patron of astronomy of his era in India. His works on rectification of the Calendar and prediction of eclipses were remarkable. He prepared in 1718 A.D. a set of astronomical tables, the Zeech-i-Muhammad Shahi which he dedicated to the then Mughal Emperor Mohammad Shah.

Following 16 instruments were built in this Jaipur observatory and they all are in good and working condition for exact calculation of planets and stars:-

1.       Laghu Samrat Yantra     2.       Dhruva Darshak Pattika  3.       Nadi Valaya Yantra

4.       Palbha Yantra              5.       Kranti Vritta Yantra         6.       Yantra Raj Yantra

7.       Unnantansh Yantra      8.       DakshiNottar Bhatti Yantra  9.       Vrihat Samrat Yantra

10.           Shasthansh Yantra  11.           Rashi Valaya Yantra   12.           Jai Prakash Yantra

13.           Chakra Yantra      14.           Kapali Yantra          15.           Ram Yantra

16.           Digansh Yantra

Chakra Yantra
Chakra Yantra

Dakshinottar Bhitti Yantra
Dakshinottar Bhitti Yantra

Jantar Mantar,Jaipur
Jantar Mantar

Laghu Samrat and Dhruva Vedh Yantra
Laghu Samrat & Dhruva Vedh Yantra

Virhat Samrat Yantra
Virhat Samrat Yantra

Nadi Valaya Uttar Gol
Nadi Valaya Uttar Gol

Yantra Raj Yantra
Yantra Raj Yantra

Jai Prakash Yantra
Jai Prakash Yantra

 
 
 


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